STP Root Guard
In Figure 2, device D begins to participate in STP. For example, software-based bridge applications are launched on PCs or other switches that a customer connects to a service-provider network. If the priority of bridge D is 0 or any value lower than the priority of the root bridge, device D is elected as a root bridge for this VLAN. If the link between device A and B is 1 gigabit and links between A and C as well as B and C are 100 Mbps, the election of D as root causes the Gigabit Ethernet link that connects the two core switches to block. This block causes all the data in that VLAN to flow via a 100-Mbps link across the access layer. If more data flow via the core in that VLAN than this link can accommodate, the drop of some frames occurs. The frame drop leads to a performance loss or a connectivity outage.
The root guard feature protects the network against such issues.
The configuration of root guard is on a per-port basis. Root guard does not allow the port to become an STP root port, so the port is always STP-designated. If a better BPDU arrives on this port, root guard does not take the BPDU into account and elect a new STP root. Instead, root guard puts the port into the root-inconsistent STP state. You must enable root guard on all ports where the root bridge should not appear. In a way, you can configure a perimeter around the part of the network where the STP root is able to be located.
In Figure 2, enable root guard on the Switch C port that connects to Switch D.
Switch C in Figure 2 blocks the port that connects to Switch D, after the switch receives a superior BPDU. Root guard puts the port in the root-inconsistent STP state. No traffic passes through the port in this state. After device D ceases to send superior BPDUs, the port is unblocked again. Via STP, the port goes from the listening state to the learning state, and eventually transitions to the forwarding state. Recovery is automatic; no human intervention is necessary.
This message appears after root guard blocks a port:
%SPANTREE-2-ROOTGUARDBLOCK: Port 1/1 tried to become non-designated in VLAN 77. Moved to root-inconsistent state